Synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones

Cholic acid , 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, the most abundant bile acid in humans and many other species, was discovered before chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a tri-hydroxy-bile acid with 3 hydroxyl groups (3α, 7α and 12α). In its synthesis in the liver, 12α hydroxylation is performed by the additional action of CYP8B1 . As this had already been described, the discovery of chenodeoxcholic acid (with 2 hydroxyl groups) made this new bile acid a "deoxycholic acid" in that it had one fewer hydroxyl group than cholic acid. [2] [3]

This universality, for example, makes the insertion of a fragment of human DNA containing a gene for the production of a given protein into the genetic material of bacteria feasible. Since bacterial transcription and translation systems work in the same way as corresponding human systems, the bacteria will begin to synthesize the human protein associated with the inserted DNA fragment. There exist industries that produce human insulin (for use by diabetics) in this way, synthesized by bacteria with modified DNA. If the genetic code were not universal, this kind of genetic manipulation would be impossible or very difficult to accomplish without new technological advancements.

Synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones

synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones

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