The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
Thank you for your posts. I too have some kind of shoulder injury. However mine is NOT from the flu but from Prevnar (either meningitis or pneumonia), and it was a 4th semester nursing student, about to graduate, who injected me. When she wiped my shoulder I told her she was too high (I am a surgical tech and just got into nursing school myself) I told her to go lower, she said ok and dropped down maybe 2 mm. I instantly had pain in my shoulder joint. I have no previous injuries to my shoulder but by the end of the day I had lost almost all range of motion in my arm. The loss of ROM lasted for almost 3 days but never fully returned. I cant lift my arm in certain directions and the pain is through the roof at times, especially when scrubbing and gowning and gloving surgeons. Its been 9 days and nothing helps. Can anyone tell me if the symptoms they were experiencing went away?