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Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatories, regardless of the inflammation's cause; their primary anti-inflammatory mechanism is lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis. Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2 , thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte inflammatory events ( epithelial adhesion , emigration , chemotaxis , phagocytosis , respiratory burst , etc.). In other words, glucocorticoids not only suppress immune response, but also inhibit the two main products of inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes . They inhibit prostaglandin synthesis at the level of phospholipase A2 as well as at the level of cyclooxygenase /PGE isomerase (COX-1 and COX-2), [29] the latter effect being much like that of NSAIDs , potentiating the anti-inflammatory effect.

Stages of Liver Damage




A group of enzymes, that are located in the endoplasmic reticulum, known as cytochrome P-450, is the most important family of metabolizing enzymes found in the liver. Cytochrome P-450 is the terminal oxidase component of an electron transport chain. It’s not a single enzyme, but consists of a family of closely related 50 isoforms. Six of them metabolize 90% of drugs. There is a great diversity of individual P-450 gene products and this heterogeneity allows the liver to perform oxidation on a vast array of chemicals, which includes almost all drugs.


Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 99 Years   (Adult, Senior) Sexes Eligible for Study:   All Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No Criteria

  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:
Phase I:

Refractory to steroids

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