Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing IVF-embryo transfer based-assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment show variable ovarian responses to exogenous FSH administration. For better understanding and control of PCOS ovarian responses in ART, the present study was carried out to compare the follicular hormones and the expression of granulosa cell genes between PCOS and non-PCOS women during ART treatment as well as their IVF outcomes. Overall, 138 PCOS and 78 non-PCOS women were recruited for the present study. Follicular fluid collected from PCOS women showed high levels of testosterone. The expression of aromatase was found significantly reduced in luteinized granulosa cells from PCOS women. In cultured luteinized granulosa cells isolated from non-PCOS women, their exposure to testosterone at a level that was observed in PCOS follicles could decrease both mRNA and protein levels of aromatase in vitro. The inhibitory effect of testosterone was abolished by androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide. These results suggest that the hyperandrogenic follicular environment may be a key hazardous factor leading to the down-regulation of aromatase in PCOS.